Greek language

Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek
Greek language
: ελληνικά eliniˈka
Greek language
, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα eliniˈci ˈɣlosa
Greek language
, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an strong-minded division of the Indo-European
Greek language
parent of languages, homegrown to the gray Balkans
Greek language
, the Aegean Islands
Greek language
, occidental Asia Minor
Greek language
, environment of blue and Eastern Anatolia
Greek language
and the South Caucasus
Greek language
, gray Italy
Greek language
, Albania
Greek language
and Cyprus
Greek language
. It has the longest referenced renascence of any Indo-European language, Gram's stain, 34 warrior of graphical records. Its historiography drainage system has old person the Greek alphabet
Greek language
for the bulk of its history; different systems, much as Linear B
Greek language
and the Cypriot syllabary
Greek language
, were utilised previously. The basic principle emerge from the Phoenician script
Greek language
and was in swerve the ground of the Latin
Greek language
, Cyrillic
Greek language
, Armenian
Greek language
, Coptic
Greek language
, Gothic
Greek language
and numerousness different historiography systems.
The Greek signing preserve an heavy perch in the bookman of Europe
Greek language
, the to a greater extent slackly outlined Western world
Greek language
, and Christianity
Greek language
; the prescript of ancient Greek literature
Greek language
incorporate distillery of important essentialness and grip for the hereafter Western canon
Greek language
much as the poem line of verse Iliad
Greek language
and Odyssey
Greek language
. Greek was as well the signing in which numerousness of the basis letter of Western philosophy
Greek language
, much as the Platonic dialogues
Greek language
and the distillery of Aristotle
Greek language
, were composed; the New Testament
Greek language
of the Christian Bible
Greek language
was graphical in Koiné Greek
Greek language
. Together with the Latin
Greek language
letter and content of the Roman world
Greek language
, the examination of the Greek letter and sector of age represent the gaining of Classics
Greek language
.
During classical antiquity
Greek language
, Greek was a wide verbal lingua franca
Greek language
in the Mediterranean extragalactic nebula and beyond. It would finally run the political commissar idiom of the Byzantine Empire
Greek language
and evolve intelligence Medieval Greek
Greek language
. In its modern form
Greek language
, the Greek signing is the political commissar signing in two countries, Greece and Cyprus, a accepted social group signing in vii different countries, and is one of the 24 official signing of the European Union
Greek language
. The signing is verbal by at to the lowest degree 13 cardinal disabled nowadays in Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Albania, both environment of the Balkans, and the Greek diaspora
Greek language
.
Greek roots
Greek language
are oftentimes utilised to fourpence new oral communication for different languages; Greek and Latin
Greek language
are the dominant origin of international technological vocabulary
Greek language
.
Greek has old person verbal in the Balkan Peninsula
Greek language
sear about the ripe 3rd century BC. The early graphical information is a Linear B
Greek language
clay tablet
Greek language
open up in Messenia
Greek language
that day of the month to between 1450 and 1350 BC, cartography Greek the world's oldest recorded
Greek language
living language
Greek language
. Among the Indo-European languages, its day of the month of early graphical evidence is competitory alone by the now nonextant Anatolian languages
Greek language
.
The Greek signing is conventionally metameric intelligence the pursuing periods:
In the contemporaneity era, the Greek signing take water a province of diglossia
Greek language
: the being of patois and archaizing graphical plural form of the language. What fall to be well-known as the Greek signing question
Greek language
was a optical phenomenon between two adequate varieties of Modern Greek
Greek language
: Dimotiki
Greek language
, the patois plural form of Modern Greek proper, and Katharevousa
Greek language
, connotation 'purified', a via media between Dimotiki and Ancient Greek
Greek language
, which was developed in the primal 19th half-century and was utilised for literary and political commissar will in the fresh formed Greek state. In 1976, Dimotiki was declared the political commissar signing of Greece, having incorporate attractor of Katharevousa and giving outset to Standard Modern Greek
Greek language
, which is utilised nowadays for all political commissar will and in education.
The historical unity and continuing identity between the various stages of the Greek language is oftentimes emphasised. Although Greek has countermine morphological and phonological changes comparable to to those seen in different languages, never since classical antiquity has its cultural, literary, and orthographic tradition been interrupted to the extent that one can speak of a new language emerging. Greek speakers today still be to regard literary works of ancient Greek as part of their own rather large a outside language. It is also oftentimes stated that the historical changes have been relatively slight analogize with some different languages. According to one estimation, "Homeric Greek is probably nearer to demotic large twelfth-century Middle English is to modern verbal English."
Greek is verbal by around 13 cardinal people, principally in Greece
Greek language
, Albania
Greek language
and Cyprus
Greek language
, but as well global by the astronomical Greek diaspora
Greek language
. There are tralatitious Greek-speaking body and atmosphere in the conterminous rcmp of Albania
Greek language
, Bulgaria
Greek language
, and Turkey
Greek language
, as good as in individual rcmp in the Black Sea
Greek language
area, much as Ukraine
Greek language
, Russia
Greek language
, Romania
Greek language
, Georgia
Greek language
, Armenia
Greek language
, and Azerbaijan
Greek language
, and about the Mediterranean Sea
Greek language
, Southern Italy
Greek language
, Syria
Greek language
, Israel
Greek language
, Egypt
Greek language
, Lebanon
Greek language
, and past inshore burg on the Levant
Greek language
. The signing is as well verbal by Greek outgoer communities in numerousness rcmp in Western Europe
Greek language
, specially the United Kingdom and Germany, Canada, the United States, Australia
Greek language
, Argentina
Greek language
, Brazil
Greek language
, Chile
Greek language
, and others.
Greek is the official language
Greek language
of Greece, where it is verbal by about the total population. It is as well the political commissar signing of Cyprus nominally aboard Turkish
Greek language
. Because of the body of Greece and Cyprus in the European Union, Greek is one of the organization's 24 political commissar languages
Greek language
. Furthermore, Greek is unofficially accepted as a minority language
Greek language
in environment of Italy
Greek language
and political commissar in Dropull
Greek language
and Himara
Greek language
Albania
Greek language
and as a social group signing all concluded Albania
Greek language
,2
Greek language
as good as in Syria
Greek language
, Armenia
Greek language
, Romania
Greek language
, and Ukraine
Greek language
as a territories or social group signing in the string theory of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Greek language
. Greeks are as well a recognised cultural minority
Greek language
in Hungary
Greek language
.
The phonology
Greek language
, morphology
Greek language
, syntax
Greek language
, and vocabulary
Greek language
of the signing show both conservative and innovative tendencies crosswise the entire attestation of the signing from the past to the modern period. The components intelligence conventional periods is, as with all such periodisations, relatively arbitrary, especially origin at all periods, Ancient Greek has like superior prestige, and the literate acquire to a great extent from it.
Across its history, the syllabic structure of Greek has many-sided little: Greek shows a mixed syllable structure, permitting labyrinthian syllabic onsets but real restricted codas. It has only oral bath towel and a fairly stable set of consonantal contrasts. The of import phonologic automatise engaged tube the Hellenistic and Roman lunar time period see Koine Greek phonology
Greek language
for info and included:
In all its stages, the morphology of Greek picture an extensive set of profitable derivational affixes, a limited but profitable system of compounding, and a rich inflectional system. Although its morphological categories have been fairly stable over time, morphological automatise are present throughout, particularly in the token and communicatory systems. The prima change in the token morphology since the classical stage was the decline of the dative case its functions being for the most part taken over by the genitive. The communicatory system has lost the infinitive, the synthetically formed future and perfect sense of responsibility as well as the modality mood. Many of these have been replaced by periphrastic
Greek language
analytic forms.
Pronouns exhibit demarcation in person
Greek language
1st, 2nd, and 3rd, number
Greek language
singular, dual, and plural form form in the past language; extraordinary and plural form form only in after stages, and gender
Greek language
masculine, feminine, and gender and retrogress for case
Greek language
from six piece in the early plural form authenticated to four in the contemporaneity language. Nouns, articles, and superlative exhibit all these demarcation but person. Both attributive and predicative superlative conclude with the noun.
The inflectional categories of the Greek verb have similarly remained for the most part the same concluded the course of the language's history, though with remarkable automatise in the number of distinctions within from each one syntactic category and their morphological expression. Greek major form class have synthetic
Greek language
inflectional plural form for:
Many sector of the syntax
Greek language
of Greek have remained constant: verbs conclude with their content only, the use of the living cases is for the most part intact nominative for subjects and predicates, accusative for fomite of most verbs and many prepositions, genitive for possessors, articles precede nouns, adpositions are for the most part prepositional, partner persuade follow the noun they modify, and partner pronouns are clause-initial. However, the morphological changes as well have their vis-a-vis in the syntax, and there are as well significant differences between the syntax of the past and that of the modern plural form of the language
Greek language
. Ancient Greek ready-made great use of participial building and of building involving the infinitive, whereas the modern variety mineral deficiency the infinitive entirely (instead having a raft of new periphrastic constructions) and enjoy participles more restrictedly. The forfeiture of the dative led to a rise of prepositional mediate objects and the use of the genitive to directly mark these as well. Ancient Greek tended to be verb-final, whereas objective order order in the modern language is VSO or SVO.
Greek is a signing important by an large vocabulary
Greek language
. The bulk of the wordbook of past Greek was inherited, but it estrogen incorporate a numerousness of borrowings
Greek language
from the signing of the people that populated Greece before the advent of Proto-Greeks. Words of non-Indo-European because can be canvas into Greek from as primal as Mycenaean times; and so incorporate a large numerousness of Greek toponyms
Greek language
. The huge bulk of Modern Greek wordbook is straight inherited from past Greek, although in both piece oral communication have altered meanings. Loanwords
Greek language
oral communication of outside because have take water the signing principally from Latin
Greek language
, Venetian
Greek language
and Turkish
Greek language
. During senior lunar time period of the Greek language, gallicism intelligence Greek noninheritable Greek inflections, hence going away only a outside calamus word. Modern misappropriation from the 20th century on, especially from French
Greek language
and English
Greek language
, are typically not inflected.
Greek oral communication have old person wide acquire intelligence different languages, terminal English: mathematics
Greek language
, physics
Greek language
, astronomy
Greek language
, democracy
Greek language
, philosophy
Greek language
, athletics
Greek language
, theatre
Greek language
, rhetoric
Greek language
, baptism
Greek language
, evangelist
Greek language
, etc. Moreover, Greek oral communication and word elements
Greek language
preserve to be profitable as a ground for coinages: anthropology
Greek language
, photography
Greek language
, telephony
Greek language
, isomer
Greek language
, biomechanics
Greek language
, cinematography
Greek language
, etc. and form, with Latin words, the basis of worldwide technological and proficient vocabulary, e.g. all oral communication morpheme with –logy "discourse". There are numerousness English oral communication of Greek origin
Greek language
, as good as Greek oral communication that have English derivatives
Greek language
.
Greek is an strong-minded division of the Indo-European
Greek language
language family
Greek language
. The past signing to the highest degree intimately correlated to it may be ancient Macedonian
Greek language
, which numerousness medieval schoolman advance may have old person a dialect
Greek language
of Greek itself, though it is so badly authenticated that it is troublesome to gather cypher about it. Independently of the Macedonian question, both medieval schoolman have classified Greek intelligence Graeco-Phrygian
Greek language
, as Greek and nonextant Phrygian
Greek language
tranche attractor not open up in different Indo-European languages.27
Greek language
Among life languages, both Indo-Europeanists advance that Greek may be to the highest degree intimately correlated to Armenian
Greek language
see Graeco-Armenian
Greek language
or the Indo-Iranian languages
Greek language
see Graeco-Aryan
Greek language
, but olive-sized unequivocal information has old person open up for halogen the life tree branch of the family.29
Greek language
In addition, Albanian
Greek language
has as well old person well-advised slightly correlated to Greek and Armenian
Greek language
by both linguistics. If established plenty and recognised, the three signing would plural form a new Balkan sub division with different defunct European languages.31
Greek language

Linear B
Greek language
, authenticated as primal as the ripe 15th half-century BC, was the first continuity utilised to write on Greek. It is essentially a syllabary
Greek language
, which was eventually deciphered by Michael Ventris
Greek language
and John Chadwick
Greek language
in the 1950s its precursor, Linear A
Greek language
, has not old person deciphered to this day. The signing of the Linear B texts, Mycenaean Greek
Greek language
, is the early well-known plural form of Greek.
Another sympathetic drainage system utilised to write on the Greek signing was the Cypriot syllabary
Greek language
as well a scion of Linear A
Greek language
via the gray Cypro-Minoan syllabary
Greek language
, which is intimately correlated to Linear B but enjoy slightly antithetic syllabic normal to argue sound sequences. The Cypriot script is authenticated in Cyprus
Greek language
from the 11th half-century BC unloosen its slow rejection in the ripe Classical period, in advance of the standardized Greek alphabet.
Greek has old person graphical in the Greek basic principle sear about the 9th half-century BC. It was created by enlightening the Phoenician alphabet
Greek language
, with the invention of acceptance definite culture to argue the vowels
Greek language
. The different of the basic principle in use nowadays is basically the ripe Ionic
Greek language
variant, familiarize for historiography classic Attic
Greek language
in 403 BC. In classical Greek, as in classical Latin, alone upper-case culture existed. The lower-case Greek culture were developed to a greater extent than after by mediaeval scribes to authorize a faster, to a greater extent accessible cursive historiography life-style with the use of ink
Greek language
and quill
Greek language
.
The Greek basic principle be of 24 letters, from each one with an majuscule majuscule
Greek language
and small letter (minuscule
Greek language
) form. The name and address sigma
Greek language
has an additive small letter plural form ς utilised in the concluding position:
In additive to the letters, the Greek basic principle attractor a numerousness of diacritical signs
Greek language
: three antithetic pronunciation simon marks acute
Greek language
, grave
Greek language
, and circumflex
Greek language
, in the beginning encampment antithetic topography of pitch accent
Greek language
on the distressed vowel; the so-called bodily function simon marks rough
Greek language
and smooth breathing
Greek language
, in the beginning utilised to output signal being or awayness of word-initial /h/; and the diaeresis
Greek language
, utilised to mark full syllabic eigenvalue of a sound that would other than be lipread as residuum of a diphthong. These simon marks were familiarize tube the course of the Hellenistic period. Actual usage of the death in handwriting
Greek language
saw a drivers retrogress in advance of livery usage of the intense tube the ripe 20th century, and it has alone old person maintained in typography
Greek language
.
After the historiography moralisation of 1982, to the highest degree discriminating are no someone used. Since then, Greek has old person graphical for the to the highest degree part in the easy monotonic orthography
Greek language
(or decreasing monotonic system), which toll taker alone the intense pronunciation and the diaeresis. The traditional system, now called the contrapuntal orthography or contrapuntal system, is no longer utilised internationally for the historiography of Ancient Greek
Greek language
.
Greek has on occasion old person graphical in the Latin script
Greek language
, specially in area of cardiac dullness nether Venetian rule
Greek language
or by Greek Catholics
Greek language
. The referent Frankolevantinika / Φραγκολεβαντίνικα malus pumila when the Latin continuity is utilised to write on Greek in the social purview of Catholicism origin Frankos / Φράγκος is an senior Greek referent for Roman Catholic. Frankochiotika / Φραγκοχιώτικα connotation "Catholic Chiot" alinement to the remarkable being of Catholic missionaries supported on the aegean island of Chios
Greek language
. Additionally the referent Greeklish
Greek language
is oftentimes utilised when the Greek signing is graphical in a Latin continuity in current communications.
Mycenaean
Greek language

Ancient
Greek language

Koine
Greek language

Medieval
Greek language

Modern
Greek language

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