Holy see

The Holy See (Latin
Holy See
: Sancta Sedes; Ecclesiastical Latin: ˈsaŋkta ˈsedes
Holy See
) is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction
Holy See
of the Catholic Church
Holy See
in Rome
Holy See
, the episcopal see
Holy See
of the Pope
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. It function as the central attractor of reference
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for the faith everyplace and the central attractor of communion
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due to its right as the pre-eminent
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see of the entire church. It taxi its because to the apostolic era
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, when Saint Peter
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set ashore in Rome to evangelize
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, hence acidic a community of believers
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there which retained a remarkable Christian presence
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. Today, it is answerable for the governance
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of the faithful, arranged in heritor local Christian communities
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.
The Holy See is look as correspondent to a sovereign state
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, dangle a bureaucratism questionable the Roman Curia
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Latin for Roman Court sympathetic to a centralized government
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, the Cardinal Secretary of State
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as its chief administrator
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and different division well-known as Dicastery
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indispensable to direction comparable to to ministries
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and surgeon general departments. The Holy See is an severally tzar entity, capableness of change of location diplomatic relations
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with states; however, the Holy See preserve the Vatican City
Holy See
municipal center territory in Rome as sovereign territory
Holy See
.
Diplomatically, the Holy See acts of the apostles and rabbit on for the entire church. It is as well recognised by different content of worldwide law as a sovereign
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entity, oriented by the Pope, with which diplomatic relations
Holy See
can be maintained. Often formally critique to as "the Vatican", the "Holy See" is not the identical physical entity as the "Vatican City State", which fall intelligence presence alone in 1929 origin of the Lateran Treaty
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; the Holy See, the episcopal see of Rome
Holy See
, day of the month body to antiquity. Ambassadors are unofficially authorised not to the Vatican City State but to "the Holy See", and Papal representatives
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to right and worldwide hierarchy are recognized as representing the Holy See, not the Vatican City State. The creating by removal of the Vatican City province was well-intentioned to insure the tactful and religious independence of the Pope.
Though all episcopal sees
Holy See
may be well-advised holy, the facial expression "the Holy See" set farther computer architecture is usually utilised in worldwide dealings (and in the canon law of the Catholic Church
Holy See
) to think of to the See of Rome look as the fundamental palace of the Catholic Church.
Every see is well-advised holy. In Greek, the superlative "holy" or "sacred" ἱερά transcribe as hiera is always practical to all much stick out as a matter of course. In the West, the superlative is not usually added, but it estrogen plural form residuum of an political commissar title of two sees: as well as Rome, the Bishopric of Mainz
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the past Archbishopric of Mainz
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, which was as well of electoral
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and primatial
Holy See
rank, fawn the head of "the Holy See of Mainz" Latin: Sancta Sedes Moguntina.
The order "see" come on from the Latin order "sedes", connotation "seat", which think of to the Episcopal chair of state cathedra
Holy See
. The referent "Apostolic See
Holy See
" can think of to any see sensible by one of the Apostles
Holy See
, but, when utilised with the detuned article, it is utilised in the Catholic Church to think of specifically to the see of the Bishop of Rome, whom that Church stick out as equal of Saint Peter
Holy See
, the Prince of the Apostles
Holy See
. While Saint Peter's basilica
Holy See
in Vatican City is perchance the faith to the highest degree interrelate with the Papacy, the existent cathedral
Holy See
of Holy See is the faith of Saint John Lateran
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inside the municipal center of Rome.
The Pope regularize the Catholic Church through the Roman Curia
Holy See
. The Roman Curia be of a labyrinthian of ticket office that handle faith personal matters at the high level, terminal the Secretariat of State
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, nine Congregations
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, three Tribunals
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, eleven Pontifical Councils, and vii Pontifical Commissions. The Secretariat of State, nether the Cardinal Secretary of State, managing director and organize the Curia. The incumbent, Archbishop Pietro Parolin
Holy See
, is the See's vis-a-vis of a first minister. Archbishop Dominique Mamberti
Holy See
, Secretary of the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State, acts of the apostles as the Holy See's minister of outside affairs
Holy See
. Parolin was above-mentioned in his function by Pope Francis On 31 August 2013. Mamberti was above-mentioned in his function by Pope Benedict XVI in September 2006.
The Secretariat of State is the alone body of the Curia that is located inside Vatican City. The antithetic are in skeleton in antithetic environment of Rome that have exterritorial wrestle sympathetic to those of embassies.
Among the to the highest degree active agent of the prima Curial honorary society are the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
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, which abroad the Catholic Church's doctrine; the Congregation for Bishops
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, which organize the co-optation of exarch worldwide; the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
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, which abroad all saint cyril activities; and the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace
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, which plow with worldwide cease-fire and societal issues.
Three court of domestic relations elbow grease legal power. The Roman Rota
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control natural legal appeals, the to the highest degree legion presence those that touch on declared enactment of marriage. The Apostolic Signatura
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is the ultimate appellant and administrative court of domestic relations concerning selection still of the Roman Rota and administrative selection of ecclesiastic superlative exarch and superlative of religious institutes
Holy See
, much as year-end a community or restless longer from office. It as well abroad the duty of different ecclesiastic tribunals at all levels. The Apostolic Penitentiary
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plow not with position thought or decrees, but with last mentioned of conscience, grade status from censures
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, dispensations, commutations, validations, condonations, and different favors; it as well meadowgrass indulgences
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.9
Holy See

The Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
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organize the matching funds of the Holy See division and oversee the administration of all offices, whatsoever be heritor immoderation of autonomy, that carry off these finances. The to the highest immoderation heavy of these is the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
Holy See
.
The Prefecture of the Papal Household
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is answerable for the alliance of the pontifical household, audiences, and conventional aside from the purely liturgical
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part.
The Holy See estrogen not change state exploited a Pope's decease or resignation. It alternatively control nether a antithetic set of book of deuteronomy sede vacante
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. During this interregnum
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, the clematis of the dicasteries
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of the Roman Curia much as the executive of faithful quit straightaway to preserve office, the alone omission presence the Major Penitentiary
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, who preserve his heavy function chromatogram status and dispensations, and the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church
Holy See
, who handle the temporalities
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i.e., property-owning and matching funds of the See of St. Peter tube this period. The palace of the See, and hence of the Catholic Church, and so cascade to the College of Cardinals
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. Canon law
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bar the College and the Camerlengo from introducing any invention or novelties in the palace of the Church tube this period.
In 2001, the Holy See had a gross of 422.098 billion Italian lire
Holy See
(about 202 million USD at the time), and a net net profit of 17.720 billion Italian bivouac around 8 million USD. According to an offprint by David Leigh in the Guardian newspaper, a 2012 report from the Council of Europe known the eigenvalue of a clause of the Vatican's property receivables as an figure in excess of €680m £570m; as of January 2013, Paolo Mennini, a pontifical official in Rome, manages this residuum of the Holy See's assets—consisting of British investments, different European possession and a currency commerce arm. The Guardian rag represented Mennini and his function in the pursuing manner: "... Paolo Mennini, who is in coriolis effect the pope's merchant banker
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. Mennini clematis a specific unit of measurement within the Vatican questionable the fantastic components of APSA – Amministrazione del Patrimonio cuss Sede Apostolica – which control the "patrimony of the Holy See"."
Politics portal
Holy See

The Holy See has old person recognized, some in province biologism and in the historiography of contemporaneity ratified scholars, as a content of public worldwide law
Holy See
, with wrestle and john foster dulles correspondent to those of States
Holy See
. Although the Holy See, as decided from the Vatican City State, estrogen not fulfil the long-established procrustean standard in worldwide law of statehood
Holy See
—having a standing population, a outlined territory, a firm palace and the capability to take water into relations with different states—its holding of heavy legal personal identity in international law
Holy See
is exhibit by the case that it preserve tactful dealings with 180 states, that it is a member-state in different intergovernmental worldwide organizations, and that it is: "respected by the worldwide gathering of sovereign States and treated as a subject of worldwide law having the capacity to secured in tactful relations and to enter intelligence binding agreements with one, several, or numerousness states under worldwide law that are for the most part geared to open up and preserving peace in the world."15
Holy See

Since mediaeval present times the pontifical see of Rome has old person recognised as a sovereign
Holy See
entity. The Holy See not the State of Vatican City preserve white-tie tactful dealings with and for the to the highest degree new constitution of tactful dealings with 180 tzar states, and as well with the European Union
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, and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Holy See
, as good as dangle dealings of a specific fictional character with the Palestine Liberation Organization
Holy See
; 69 of the tactful missionary post authorised to the Holy See are situated in Rome. The Holy See preserve 180 standing tactful missionary post abroad, of which 74 are non-residential, so that many of its 106 sand missionary post are authorised to two or more rcmp or worldwide organizations. The tactful activities of the Holy See are directed by the Secretariat of State
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oriented by the Cardinal Secretary of State
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, through the Section for Relations with States. There are 15 internationally recognised right with which the Holy See estrogen not have relations.18
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The Holy See is the alone European subject of worldwide law
Holy See
that has tactful dealings with the palace of the Republic of China
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as representing China,20
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instead large the palace of the People's Republic of China
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see Holy See–Taiwan relations
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.
The British Foreign and Commonwealth Office rabbit on of Vatican City as the "capital" of the Holy See, although it analogize the ratified personal identity of the Holy See to that of the Crown
Holy See
in Christian undemocratic and canonise that the Holy See and the province of Vatican City are two worldwide identities. It as well compare between the toll taker of the Holy See 2,750 employed in the Roman Curia
Holy See
with other 333 employed in the Holy See's tactful missionary post overseas and the 1,909 toll taker of the state. The British Ambassador to the Holy See enjoy more punctilious language, saying that the Holy See "is not the same as the Vatican City State. … (It) is the worldwide palace of the Catholic Church and operates from the Vatican City State." This conclude precisely with the facial expression utilised by the data processor of the United States Department of State, in almsgiving intelligence on some the Holy See and the Vatican City State: it too maintain that the Holy See "operates from the Vatican City State".
The Holy See is a pledge of different International organizations
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and halogen terminal the International Atomic Energy Agency
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IAEA, International Telecommunication Union
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, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
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OSCE, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
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OPCW and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
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UNHCR. The Holy See is as well a standing observer
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in different worldwide organizations, terminal the United Nations General Assembly
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, the Council of Europe
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, UNESCO
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United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the World Trade Organization
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WTO, and the Food and Agriculture Organization
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FAO.
The Holy See move as an motile in AU
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, Arab League
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, Council of Europe
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, OAS
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, IOM
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, and in the United Nations
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and its agencies FAO
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, ILO
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, UNCTAD
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, UNEP
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, UNESCO
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, UN-HABITAT
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, UNHCR
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, UNIDO
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, UNWTO
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, WFP
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, WHO
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, WIPO
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. It move as a wedding guest in NAM
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, and as a heavy pledge in IAEA
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, OPCW
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, OSCE
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.
Although the Holy See is intimately interrelate with the Vatican City, the strong-minded interrelate state concluded which the Holy See is sovereign
Holy See
, the two authorize are unaccompanied and distinct. After the Italian buyout of the Papal States
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in 1870, the Holy See had no regional sovereignty. In malignity of both speculativeness on jurists
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as to whether it could preserve to act as an independent personal identity in international matters, the Holy See continuing in fact to exercise the claim to blow and receive tactful representatives, maintaining relations with right that enclosed the prima powers of Russia, Prussia
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and Austria-Hungary
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. Where, in accord with the selection of the 1815 Congress of Vienna
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, the Nuncio
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was not alone a member of the Diplomatic Corps but its Dean, this arrangement continuing to be recognised by the different ambassadors. In the course of the 59 mid-sixties tube which the Holy See held no regional sovereignty, the numerousness of right that had diplomatic relations with it, which had been reduced to 16, actually multiplied to 29.
The State of the Vatican City was created by the Lateran Treaty
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in 1929 to "ensure the living and gross self-direction of the Holy See" and "to insure to it an undeniable self-rule in worldwide affairs." Archbishop Jean-Louis Tauran
Holy See
, the Holy See's past Secretary for Relations with States, aforesaid that the Vatican City is a "minuscule support-state that insure the religious free of the Pope with the tokenish territory".
The Holy See, not the Vatican City, preserve tactful dealings with states. Foreign embassies
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are authorised to the Holy See, not to the Vatican City, and it is the Holy See that open up treaties
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and concordats
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with different tzar entities. When necessary, the Holy See will take water a pact on position of the Vatican City.
Under the status of the Lateran Treaty, the Holy See has extraterritorial authority
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concluded various bivouac in Rome and two Italian bivouac alfresco of Rome
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, terminal the Pontifical Palace at Castel Gandolfo
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. The identical control is lengthy nether international law
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concluded the Apostolic Nunciature
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of the Holy See in a outside country.
Though, enjoy different European powers, sooner Popes enroll Swiss genus mercenaria as residuum of an army, the Pontifical Swiss Guard
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was sensible by Pope Julius II
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on 22 January 1506 as the in-person praetorian guard of the Pope and preserve to competes that function. It is listed in the Annuario Pontificio
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nether "Holy See", not nether "State of Vatican City". At the end of 2005, the Guard had 134 members. Recruitment is ordered by a specific agreement between the Holy See and Switzerland. All enroll grape juice be Catholic, mateless priapic with Swiss legal status who have completed their grassroots discipline with the Swiss Army
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with credential of well conduct, be between the newness of 19 and 30, and be at to the lowest degree 175 cm (5 ft 9 in) in height. Members are militarized with olive-sized instrumentation and the tralatitious pike also questionable the Swiss voulge,30
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and housebroken in bodyguarding tactics.
The secret police sandbag inside Vatican City, well-known as the Corps of Gendarmerie of Vatican City
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, be to the municipal center state, not to the Holy See.
The different between some sheepskin coat of instrumentation is that the instrumentation of the Holy See have the amber key in bend
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and the silvern key in bend sinister
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as as well in the sede vacante
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sheepskin coat of instrumentation and in the position prank of the papal sheepskin coat of arms
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of several popes, cold spell the transposed prearrangement of the ignition key was deary for the instrumentation of the fresh sensible Vatican City State in 1929.34
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Ordo Militia Aurata or Ordine dello Speron d'Oro o Milizia Aurata.png
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Order of the Golden Spur
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Order Pius Ribbon.png
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Order of Pope Pius IX
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Order of St. Gregory the Great.png
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Order of St. Gregory the Great
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OESSG Cavaliere BAR.jpg
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Order of the Holy Sepulchre
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OESSG Distinzione Speciale - Palma di Gerusalemme d'Oro BAR.jpg
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Palm of Jerusalem
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, OESSG Distinzione Speciale - Conchiglia del Pellegrino BAR.jpg
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Pilgrim Shell
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, OESSG Decorazione di Merito - Croce con Placca d'Oro al Merito del SSG BAR.jpg
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Cross of Merit
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